The patented invention relates to nanotechnology, synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNS), plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), nanoparticle catalysis, sensing elements of detectors, and magnetic storage medium. Specifically, the invention is intended for plasma deposition of amorphous nanoparticles on a substrate. The plasma process of nanoparticle deposition is divided into short deposition cycles. After each deposition cycle, the substrate is moved from glow-discharge plasma into magnetic field where the nanoparticles under preparation are magnetized. The magnetization is carried out with the help of a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. Only the nanoparticles of magnetic materials, for example, Fe, Ni, Co, FeNi, FeCo, FeMn, FePt, FeCr, NiCr, CoNi, CoPt, CoNiCr, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, CoFe2O3, CrO2, etc. can be prepared such way. During the deposition cycles, the magnetized nanoparticles grow in size by attracting small clusters of magnetic target material sputtered nearby on the substrate. To make cluster movement toward the nanoparticles easier, surface mobility of the clusters should be increased. To increase cluster surface mobility, a sequence of magnetization-etching cycles is inserted between the magnetization-deposition cycles. Hydrogen and/or helium gases can be mixed in plasma-forming gas (usually argon) for the same reason. With all other equal conditions, the greater the number of the magnetization-deposition cycles, the larger the mean size of the nanoparticles. The shorter the magnetization cycle or the deposition cycle, the more precise mean size of the nanoparticle can be obtained. Moreover, by adjusting value of the magnetic field, it is possible to control the mean distance between the deposited nanoparticles. With all other equal conditions, the stronger the magnetic field of the nanoparticles, the larger the mean distance between nanoparticles on the substrate surface. A shape of the nanoparticles is set by direction of the magnetic field and can be made arbitrary in the general case. The technical effect consists in precise control of sizes, shape, and surface distribution of amorphous nanoparticles prepared on a substrate. The other technical effect consists in sufficient decrease of substrate temperature (from 750°C up to 150°C) during synthesis of carbon nanostructures by the method of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.
The patented invention relates to scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion-beam (FIB) systems, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), optical profiler (OP), micromechanics, robotics, and nanotechnology. Specifically, the walking robot-nanopositioner is intended for across plane precision movement of micro/nanoprobes, investigated samples, technological substrates, micro/nanosensors, micro/nanotools, etc. A small stable movement step of the positioner is achieved by substantial decreasing a contact area between a support and a bearing surface, making the support in the contact area of a definite shape and sizes, complete detaching the support from the bearing surface and translating the support in a new position while walking with no a contact between it and the bearing surface, refusing from an electrostatic clamping of the supports, placing the support in controllable manner in such a place on the bearing surface that is best fitted by the shape and sizes to the miniature tip at the support apex. By using a kind of machine vision, the walking robot-nanopositioner automatically searches for a place on the bearing surface, where the transferring support can be placed reliably. This function is carried out by measuring micro/nanotopography of the bearing surface within a neighborhood of a place, where the support is supposed to be installed, followed by realtime recognizing and analyzing the obtained topography on a computer. During analysis, a place on the bearing surface is selected, where the positioner support will possess the most stability. The topography of the bearing surface is measured by scanning a probe located at the support apex. The scanning is carried out with X, Y, Z-drivers of the support. During the scanning, the working principles of a scanning probe microscope are employed. When in operation, the positioner continually determines and compensates for its own spatial drift caused by thermal deformation and creep. The technical effect consists in a small reliably reproducible movement step on smooth, rough, and tilted surfaces while retaining unlimited travel range typical for walking devices, capability to operate both in “feet up” and “feet down” configurations, insensitivity to ambient temperature variations, ability to move directly by surface of large-sized objects.
The patented invention relates to scanning probe microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. By using one or two pairs of counter-scanned images (CSIs), the distortions caused by drift of the microscope probe relative to a sample surface are automatically eliminated. With the counter-scanning, lines in each image are drawn in the mutually opposite directions and the movement from line to line in one of the images is also carried out opposite to the movement direction in the other. Drift-produced distortions are described by linear transformations valid for the case of rather slow changing of the microscope drift velocity. To correct distortions, it is required to recognize the same surface feature within each CSI and to determine lateral coordinates of the feature. Solving a system of linear equations, found are the linear transformation coefficients suitable for CSI correction in the lateral and the vertical planes. After matching the corrected CSIs topography averaging is carried out in the overlap area. Two nonlinear correction methods based on the linear one are suggested that provide a greater precision of drift elimination. The first method of nonlinear correction uses regression surfaces drawn through local offsets of the features. The second method of nonlinear correction is based on representation of the surface as a set of its small fragments – feature neighborhoods. The technical result consists in higher measurement precision, noise level reduction, correction with the error which does not exceed some preliminarily specified value, excellent compatibility with the feature-oriented scanning.
The patented invention relates to scanning probe microscopy (SPM), in particular, to methods intended for SPM-scanner calibration. The invention may be applied for calibration of any instrument of SPM family, for example, for a scanning tunneling microscope, for a scanning atomic force microscope, for a scanning near-field optical microscope, etc. The suggested method may also be used for calibration of the scanning electron microscope. First, a space of scanner displacements is “partitioned” on some domains by a net, which nodes correspond to absolute integer coordinates of the scanner. Then, the microscope scanner moves from one net node to other neighbor node using a raster-like law. The displacements in the raster are carried out in such a way that the movements in the adjacent lines/columns and the movements in the adjacent planes occur in the opposite directions. Position of the fine Z manipulator of the scanner while moving by the net nodes in the vertical plane is set with a coarse Z manipulator. Within a vicinity of each net node a local aperture scanning, search and capture of the nearest local calibration structure (LCS) are carried out. Once approximate relative coordinates of LCS features have been determined, a skipping operation is implemented aimed for precision determination of relative coordinates of the LCS features. The skipping operation permits to measure precisely the feature relative coordinates despite a continuous thermal drift and creep of a microscope probe relative to a standard surface. The most generally defined hill- or pit-like topography elements may be used as standard surface features. Local calibration coefficients (LCC) are calculated by the relative coordinates of the LCS features. The obtained LCC correspond to the absolute real coordinate of the LCS. The LCS “gravity center” is used as the LCS coordinate. Constructing regression surfaces through the obtained LCC, it is possible to find sought for LCC, which correspond to the integer absolute coordinates of the scanner. If sizes of the features of the standard surface are known in addition to the information on distances between them, another set of LCC can be determined as follows: a counter scanning of topography segments is carried out during the skipping operation; then, linear transformation coefficients are calculated; finally, drift-induced topography distortions in the segments are corrected by using these transformation coefficients. In order to increase precision of the calibration method both LCC sets are averaged out. An additional growth of calibration precision is realized by repetitive calibrations which number is practically unlimited. The slower velocity change of the drift of the microscope probe relative to the standard surface during a skipping operation, the more precisely the suggested calibration method is. The most accurate calibration is achieved with stable single crystal surfaces as a standard. An increased precision of topography measurements is the technical result of the invention.
The patented invention relates to precision measuring instruments and nanotechnology. The invention may be utilized in a scanning probe microscope, probe nanolithograph or high capacity probe storage device. First, the movement is being carried out with a fine positioner until it will reach the boundary of the displacement range. Then, a nearest feature is searched out and a microscope probe catches that feature by using the attachment procedure. After that, a coarse positioner makes step displacements in such direction that the fine positioner that is forced to follow the coarse positioner due to the ceaseless attachments is moving to the opposite boundary of its range. After reaching the boundary, the described above sequence of operations is repeated cyclically until the probe will reach the terminal movement point located at the preset distance from the initial point. The technical result of the invention consists in increasing precision of probe movement over a large area of a sample under investigation.
The patented invention relates to an electronic measuring equipment. The invention is designed for use in a probe scanning device. The key idea of the method consists in employing surface features as reference points while implementing any movements. The movements are carried out from one feature to another located in vicinity. As a result, a connected chain of features is composed where these features are allocated relatively to each other. Feature search and detection as well as calculation of feature position coordinates are carried out by a recognition program. By scanning a small area around each feature, and then, lying the obtained surface segments on the respective positions determined at recognition, it is possible to reconstruct the real surface topography. Since coordinates of the feature positions are known, one may implement precision probe positioning by using the attachment mechanism. The technical result consists in increasing precision of surface topography measurements and improvement of instrument resolution.
The patented invention relates to a computer equipment. The invention is intended for use in a high capacity probe storage device (PSD). In the high capacity PSD, by means of a servo system in the vertical plane, a constant gap between a probe and a data carrier surface is provided while reading back digital information. By scanning a rectangle neighborhood of the current attachment element (i. e., an auxiliary synchronizing element or a memory element itself) in the raster-like manner, one may carry out a program recognition of the next attachment element within the mentioned neighborhood, then determine its relative position on the information track and the bits of the stored data. Further, the described above operations are repeated considering the next element as the current one. The technical result consists in increased tracking reliability as well as device design simplification.